Oral Hypoglycemic Agents
||The sulfonamide component in the typical sulfa antibiotics is of a slightly different molecular structure than that in sulfonylureas. Although cross-reactivity is technically possible, current literature does not consider this likely, and sulfonylureas are typically well tolerated in patients with a sulfa allergy.|
|Stimulate insulin release.||
Metformin – generic name – only drug in this class
Immediate release brand names:
Extended release brand names:
Fortamet, Glucophage XR, and Glumetza
Does not cause wt gain and rarely causes hypoglycemia.
|Should not be given to patients with impaired renal function, due to possibility of lactic acidosis.
Heart failure, liver failure, hx of lactic acidosis, or concurrent serious infections.
Two days before or after IV contrast.
Garlic and ginseng may increase hypoglycemia.
|Block enzyme action in small intestine inhibiting breakdown of complex CHO into mondosaccharides. CHO must be in monosaccharide form for absorption.||
||Hypoglycemia must be treated with glucose and not sucrose (table sugar).
Garlic and ginsing may increase hypoglycemia.
|Thiazolidinediones (or glitazones)
||Monitor liver function
Source: Adams, M.P., & Holland, L.N. (2011). Pharmacology for nurses: A pathophysiologic approach. Pearson; Boston, Mass.
Pharm Oral Hypoglycemic Agents